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Movado Group features it’s grew to become part of in a extended-term worldwide license agreement with Lacoste of France, to create, produce, market and distribute some mens and womens watches. The agreement works well with the month from the month of the month of january 1, 2007, and financial the agreement weren’t revealed.
The brand-new watch collection may have prices not the same as $195 to $595, it will be provided by fine shops and niche stores, fine jewelry retailers at Lacoste stores worldwide. The brand-new collection will launch in Spring 2007.
Ron Cote, Executive V . P . and Chief Operating Officer of Movado, mentioned, “Wealthy within the wealthy heritage and immediately recognized by its legendary crocodile emblem, Lacoste could be a worldwide giant brand. Lacoste has accomplished terrific momentum in the last period of time which we’re feeling this mixture of strongly classified watches inside the top finish within the fashion watch category while using energy and durability in the trademark is a great chance for companies.”
Movado Group designs, manufactures, and distributes Movado, Ebel, Concord, ESQ, Coach, Tommy Hilfiger and Hugo Boss watches worldwide, and works Movado boutiques and Company stores inside the u . s . states . States. The company also needs to create Juicy Couture watches in november 2006.
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Bvlgari always increase the risk for globe startle. One of the most luxury jewelry brands, Bvlgari can almost always integrate the muse of jewelry designs to the watches and contains create a grat volume of jewelry watches all over the world. Many of these watches are particularly welcome by women. This Season, Bvlgari has launched the best Novelties which shakes the earth again. The Best Novelties contain various kinds of watches such as the Diagono X-Professional, the Bvlgari Serpenti, the Octo Bi-Retro Steel Ceramic as well as the Ergon watches etc. Some series are for anybody that like sports even though some are for individuals who’re love the luxurious jewelry items. Now let&rsquos have a look within the latest jewelry watches of Bvlgari – the Bvlgari Serpenti. Inside the first sight from the Serpenti, you may to begin with be drawn to the 18K pink gold, diamonds as well as the serpentine bracelet. However, you should not ignore its fantastic movement – Swiss quarta movement movement Calibre B033 which was designed exclusively for Bvlgari. Sexy and ideal,Windows 7 Product Key, it is the synthesis in the serpent&rsquos sinuous form as well as the elegant and simple chastity of geometric abstraction. The jewels watches in the Serpenti collection find aesthetic cohesion inside the chromatic subtleties of white-colored and pink gold, too as with the transparency and opacity of diamonds and black onyx. Replicating the scales in the creature&rsquos skin, Bvlgari masters dexterously and smartly integrate the diamonds, pink gold hinges to the frame, which greatly includes the spirit of mild yet elegant. The only real or double coils are surmounted having a stylized, bejeweled mind. The body in the bracelets and rings includes a quantity of individual components. The dials are embellished by gem indexes alternating with white-colored mother-of-jewel inside the more classic single- or double-coil versions in white gold or platinum or platinum, with black mother-of-jewel inside the three models in pink gold and onyx. The range includes five models in pink and white gold or platinum or platinum, single or double coil, these embody the identical language in the new Serpenti jewel.
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Purchasing anything related to your wedding can be a challenging process when your are trying to stick to a limited budget. Planning a wedding is indeed expensive, thus you need to spend the budget wisely. As a bride-to-be, it is a tradition to give thank you gifts for the bridesmaids, and these gifts can quickly add up to your wedding cost. Fortunately, you don’t need to spend a fortune just for bridesmaids gifts alone, as there are so many inexpensive gifts ideas available out there.
Personalized bridesmaids gifts can make inexpensive presents for your bridesmaids. Today, you can personalize almost everything, including gifts for any recipient on your list. Personalize bridesmaids gifts are a practical idea, because anything that is inexpensive can be enhanced through adding a personal touch. Meaning, you don’t have to purchase lavish items toe up with something worth to appreciate. In fact, you can get something cheap and just have it personalized to make a thoughtful bridesmaids present. Personalized bridesmaids gifts also make heart-felt gifts, as they simply show that you have exerted time and effort to make your presents special and memorable.
There are so many items you can personalize these days, one of which is a handbag. Handbags are traditional gifts for bridesmaids, however if personalized,Replica Breitling Bentley, they can make a distinctive present for each lady at your wedding. Bridesmaids handbags can be anything from totes, beaded purses to evening bags. Whichever you pick, feel free to personalize them with each of the girls’ name or initials. Or, there are custom bags ideas which you can customize depending on each lady’s desire. For example, you can have them pick their favorite color of fabric for the bag, or color of thread for the embroidering.
Aside from personalized handbags, another personalized gift option is an engraved jewelry. Jewelry pieces are can also make traditional gifts for bridesmaids. These accessories are one of the most important ensembles of bridesmaids, so giving such is an ideal thing to do. Jewelry gifts are a bit expensive, however, you can always find cheaper pieces whenever there’s a sale going on or there are some inexpensive options that are usually available online.
Another inexpensive option you may consider is DIY gifts. If you think you are creative enough to make your own bridesmaids gifts, then feel free to do so. This idea will actually work to your advantage as you will not only save money, but you can also let your creativity to shine through.
Browse the Internet to see a wide variety of personalized bridesmaids gifts, at inexpensive prices. Online stores tend to lower down the prices of their products as they don’t have plenty of overhead charges they need to pay,pared to local retailers. Other possible personalized bridesmaids gifts that are at inexpensive prices may include embroidered bridesmaids apparel, engravedpact mirrors, engraved picture frames, personalized gift baskets, embroidered cosmetic bags, personalized jewelry boxes and many more. A final reminder, always keep in mind your bridesmaids when shopping gifts for them, and consider their personal preferences. Remember, the best gifts are reflections of your bridesmaids, but need not push you to break your bank.
The depression from the curent economy has already established some negative impact on the folks particularly when involves their hard gained money. However,the top quality items like bags and replica watch, for example replica Cartier or replica A.Lange&Sohne or Breitling,are type of the indicating social status.
If you wish to meet up with the style trend or stay on a single degree of your buddies without investing a lot money, then your top quality and stylish replica items are the perferct options. Nowadays, people feel totally proud while buying famous label items.
Replica items not just escalate your image but additionally help you save a sizable amount of your salary. Searching for costly without having to be costly may be the trick a budget and your status.Among many of these Replica items, the Replica watch are among the popular items that are loved by a lot of.
Before these watches, only elite class could manage to purchase these top quality watches. These brand replica watch came like a boon to everybody that likes the elegance and luxury simultaneously in less cost. When everyone is buying a wrist watch then the best option is to choose Replica watch. With the aid of these watches you may enjoy exactly the same luxury of getting a top quality watches. With the aid of these stunning watches you’ve got the same benefits.With the aid of these watches you’ll be able to purchase multiple watches.
The most crucial factor is the low cost and quality always attract clients a great deal. Which watches have results around the proprietors. Well it’s very difficult to differentiate between your original and replica watch.
Acrylic rhinestone pendants are affordable jewellery that any lady may use inbination with many different clothes. Because of the character from the mounting and exactly how the substitute gems are made you can’t fail while selecting them. Since the availability when it comes to color is excellent, you’ll find only the best for you, regardless of what the occasion is.
The pendants have been receiving the marketplace for a very long time as well as their primary niche may be the ladies who can’t afford genuine gems but nonetheless want exactly the same elegance and sparkle they provide. Since the artificial gems can mimic lots of kinds of natural gemstones,Replica Rolex Milgauss, you canbine the jewellery with various kinds of clothing. Casual or work clothing receives probably the most attention because, given the need for the pendants, you are able to bring them along with you out in the pub without fear that you simply might be susceptible to thievery.
The acrylic rhinestone pendants are regarded as as fantasy jewellery, which means they are appropriate to become worn by kids too. When it comes to appeal, young girls love the various colored and multi-faceted ensembles that are offered. Sometimes the jewels can imitate classic jewellery, while in other cases they may be new masterpieces by themselves. What this means is that you’ve a large amount of options when selecting the best article for you personally. Heart formed pendants, geometrical shapes ensembles composed of various colored gemstones are possible.
If you wish to decide on a classic look then your classic montages would be the easiest. A definitive plus for that jewels is they aren’t supposed to have been substitutes for valuable gemstones but a re-interpretation of the identical values of jewellery. You are able to both apply these to a significant outfit in addition to have them prepared for individuals occasions whenever you need a playful accessory to choose less demanding costume.
The pendants will also be an enjoyable experience because they may be taken anywhere. Due to the worth they have they’re not going to be mistaken with gemstones and, therefore, you are able to carry all of them with you wherever you go, getting no second considered how appropriate they might really be for that conditions given. Overall, the wonder and the range of individuals add-ons goes along easily in most conditions and they’ll certainly provide you with the appearance and also the feel you had been searching for. Make certain you select the best color and also the right shape for only you won’t appreciate everyday your decision.
Major Stylish Characteristics including Omega Watches
Greater than a century, company Omega was creating projects where you reside wealthy in-class trademark watches. Both in addition to males get yourself a specific step to savor by using this quality watch. Whether it is the great quality which every one Omega watch includes additionally to specific characteristics the look of watch, the specific Omega brand is desirable in regards to the client advertise. This can be different fashionable elements which regularly around furthermore on their behalf selves help make Omega some top-notch luxurious make.
Lots of people which gets luxurious watches extended to enable them to face using their arm. They’ve been trying to get the actual watch that’s certain to glance alluring and tell whenever. By way of Omega manufacturer comfort watches, clients growing the very best of possible cell phone industry’s. They’re getting a wristwatch that ought to indicate for the moment along with best precision in addition to buying a greater-class kind watch which appears being excellent upon them. Your Omega watches in relation to males and girls are available in a number of types not a problem so, that you just choose your practically guaranteed to acquire a stylish watch to suit your design absolutely.
As watches are developing any prone perfect your body which allows it to sometimes finish off knocked every occasionally, you need to choose a extravagance type of watch which robust since the title indicated. Omega creator watches are created to have the ability to survive, this is a great that of pricey label watches might contain. Whenever crafted, a Omega watches sort through extensive assessment to ensure that they’ll just look great meanwhile on the way. The moment 1 stays a lot of funds on their own particular watch they may be remember they have got this phenomenal clock regarding a very very very long time. Omega might be a company which regularly tries to provide this phenomenal level of quality tough watches these individuals build.
You’ll find numerous exclusive qualities the Omega watches hold. Numerous watches contain functions like scratch-resistant azure ravenscroft, co-axial escapement, mother regarding bead knobs, tinted pure stone add-ons plus much more. The greater qualities any Omega watch includes, the higher the package cost. But, for people that are fixed concerning pc high-class product watch, using the Omega reliable title most of your watch acquire makes sense. You’ll finish off experiencing a great watch utilizing exclusive offers which frequently handful of others high-finish watch maker might supply frequently occasions.
Additionally to, the particular Omega type of top finish watch is really altering produced for pattern. Different techniques of Omega watches to use industry in addition to include designer label features which may be a more sensible choice rather than ones really are. Picking to include a higher a larger level waterproof or perhaps increase the amount of precious stone gildings within the watches, Omega may well be a the the watchmaking industry industry company that needs to please and definitely goes onto make primary designer label top quality watches to folks that are further particular much more comparison for the types certainly house provided with Omega.
Science and Technology
The Aztecs were a fairly advanced and powerful that could bepared to ancient Rome in terms of its level of technological sophistication. The Aztecs were not as sophisticated as their contemporaries in all areas of science and technology but they were very advanced in areas that they needed to be and did very well with what little they had and what the obstacles that they had to face. The Aztecs used many different technologies and their sophisticated knowledge of many sciences to try to regulate and better their daily lives.
The Aztecs used abination of astronomy, canal building and highly developed agricultural science to plant the right plants at the right time in order to feed their empire. Astronomy was used to make calendars which would have determined the best time to begin to plant and harvest each food. Canal building and irrigation allowed the Aztecs to feed their plants rich riverbed soil by building island farms in the middle of rivers and canals, a farm of this variety was a Chinampa. Building farms in the middle of rivers allowed the Aztecs to quickly deliver goods to the nearest market. The Aztecs also built farms on slopes by building terraces from the soil, this also served to limit soil erosion. Due to the high demand for food that existed in the Aztec empire, slash and burn were alsomon methods of farming, this also lead to an ever increasing demand for land.
The societal progress of the Aztecs relied heavily on math to determine the best date to do certain things, the construction of buildings, canals, roads, taxes and even religious events. The Aztecs created 3 calendars each having significance in a different area of life; a ritual calendar, an annual and a long count calendar. Even though the ritual calendar was dedicated to religion, all of the calendars had some degree of religious value as Aztec society tied everything to religion.
As sophisticated as the Aztecs were they lacked some technologies that were available elsewhere and therefore had their own unique response to problems. The most shocking thing about Aztec technology is that there is a lack of the use the wheel and pack animals, topensate the Aztecs had good roads, professional runners, many rest stops situated every 6-10 miles, river highways, many causeways and secure toll roads. Another unusual technological trait of this civilization was that metallurgy did not go very far beyond copper, tin, lead and jewellery gold and silver. Topensate for the limited knowledge in metallurgy they used obsidian in place of metal in many tools which required sharpness.
Medical innovations were extensive in the Aztec empire as it fought many battles very often. Medical innovations in the Aztec empire ranged from talk therapy and medicinal herbs to bone realignment surgery. Talk therapy was widely used to try to resolve psychological problems and is a fairly simple concept that is still used today. Due to the abundance of plants and herbs in the area of their control, the Aztecs had the opportunity to experiment on their medicinal purposes this lead to them having many treatments to many illnesses and problems that they knew of. In order to avoid any need for any such treatment the Aztecs practiced good sanitary practices such as brushing their teeth with fibrous roots and using washing their mouth with mild abrasives such as ash, this was supplemented by cleansing rituals. Surgery in the Aztec empire was rudimentary but it still performed some of its purpose such as setting bones via wooden nails.
All in all without the science and technology that the Aztecs had, they would not have been anywhere nearly as successful as they were as many different technologies and their sophisticated knowledge of many sciences were a key necessity in their attempt to try to regulate and better their daily lives. They beat every obstacle that they faced with the exception of a fatal misinterpretation coupled with a threat possessing both advanced weapons and unheard of illnesses.
Music, Art and Literature
Music played a large part of the Aztec life because it provided the Aztec people with enjoyment, passing on history and culture, as well as creating a spiritual connection with life. Music was a subject taught in Aztec schools and students would pick up instruments as early as when they 12 years old. Music was also seen by the tecuhtli as a way to demonstrate their wealth so they often had their own private band or musicians to play for them at home.
Most of the music was sacred hymns, which were to honor the dead rulers and gods. Sacred hymns were instructional because they transferred historical knowledge of the past rulers and cultural knowledge of the gods to the next generations. Sacred hymns were usually only sung at special occasions to honor the dead rulers or gods. Cantares was another genre of music and they were similar to the sacred hymns because they honored the dead and their noble actions. Cantares were also called ghost songs and sung in rituals or during battle. The Aztec also played happier songs that were not about the dead in their everyday life, such as songs of energy, love, and excitement.
The Aztec used a variety of instruments in their music. To the Aztec, percussion was the major section of their music. Drums made out of turtle shells, logs, or skin were played with hands or mallets. More often than not, drums were the only instrument in Aztec music especially in cantares, to lead the warriors into battle. Other forms of percussion used by the Aztec include rattles, filled with pebbles and shaken. For melody, there were very few instruments that the Aztec had. Most of Aztec melodyes from the flute or huilacapitztli and these are still popular in Central Mexico today. Horns and trumpets were rare but still present in Aztec music.
The Aztecs prized art and it showed in almost every aspect of their civilization. A large portion of the Aztec population were artisans who felt that they had been blessed by the gods and tried to express their thoughts wherever they could. The results were marvelous pottery, masks, and architectural art found throughout the Aztec Empire.
The majority of Aztec art depicted dead rulers, gods, or nature. There was a lot of spiritual art in the Aztec Empire and these can be seen mainly on the architecture. The Aztec masons built large monuments, temples, and palaces dedicated to the gods covered with inscriptions or symbolic representations of dead rulers or gods. The natural themes were specified on animals and insects. However, more then not the animals or insects represented gods or the dead and not the animal itself.
Besides the large monuments, temples and palaces, art created by artisans were often traded in the marketplace. Ceremonial knives, head dresses, jewelry, coloured clothing are just some examples of the variety of art forms found in the Aztec Empire. Art was also worn in the form of jewelry, clothing, and headdresses and the upper class showed their power by changing appearance daily. Legend states that the emperor never wore the same clothing twice. The upper class also held family treasuries of their jewelry. Art was also found on masks, shields, pottery, and almost everywhere in the Aztec world. Artists paints on walls and carved on pillars to record what they saw or felt. The pictorial replications of people or animals were surprisingly realistic. Inparison to the European art at the time, Aztec art was more realistic.
The Aztec spoke Nahuatl and they recorded the majority of their literature on agave paper which was made out of agave plant fiber. These sheets were folded in half and literature was recorded on them. The majority of Aztec literature was sacred and discussed topics from predicting the future to rituals. There were also books discussing the calendar and when sacrifices should take place. The most important book from the Aztec Empire is called the Dresden Codex and it was abination of astronomy and medicine. The Nahuatl glyphs were also found extensively on the architecture because not many of the agave books remain today.
The Aztec economy was the biggest and one of the most advanced in the world by the start of the 16th century. The Aztec economy’s large size was due to a law which made it illegal to sell products anywhere other than the designated market place. This law was enforced by the notion that one would incur the wrath of the market god if they traded anywhere else. So by the start of the 16th century, Tlatelolco’s marketplace was the largest in the world, with up to 60,000 people trading in it and almost just as much in the other major cities such as Teotihuacan. Since trading was such a large part of the Aztec lifestyle, the empire relied on it for a variety of political reasons. Trade played a major part of creating a system of networks that the Aztec used to receive payments from regions as well as supply the regions with agricultural and military goods. Trade was also an alternative to war, which the Maya predecessors glorified, because trade enabled the Aztec to spread their political and dynastical influence throughout Mexico.
Two general economic systems existed in the Aztec Empire, the political and themercial systems. The political system was similar to the feudal system found in most empires around the world. Unlike the rigid feudal system, the Aztec political system was slightly different. There were numerous king figures or tlatoani who ruled over city states. The tlatoani expected tributes to be paid from their lords or tecuhtli. The lords were administrators, judges or high ranked warriors. The tecuhtli enforced a certain region and asked for tributes to be paid. These would eithere directly from slaves whom the tecuhtli owned or from calpulli of the region. The calpulli was themunity chieftan and his role was to enforce the collection of tributes by themoners. Although there is some flexibility when one looks at the Aztec Empire as a whole, the system is quite rigid and promotes only cash flow to those in power.
Since the political system was not a great economic system, a second system existed to promote trade and economic activity – themercial system. Although themercial system existed, tributes or taxes still had to be paid by the merchants, artisans, or warriors that traded. In fact, 80% of the Aztec population consisted of merchants and artisans, while only 20% of the population was farmers. The strength of the merchant class was so strong that it was predicted to overtake the tecuhtli class within a few decades after 1500. The market square was controlled by the pochtecatlatoque or the senior merchants who are appointed by the tecuhtli to oversee the marketplace. Their roles would be to organize the marketplace like the modern day supermarket so goods that fell in the same category could be found together. Furthermore, they also set the merchants up in a grid format so it was easy to navigate through the marketplace. Since these marketplaces would see close to 60,000 people a day, organization was a key responsibility for the pochtecatlatoque. The pochtecatlatoque were also responsible for enforcing the law such as ensuring that all trades are fair to both the seller and the buyer. A major fraud that occurred numerous times in Aztec markets is the trade of fake cacao beans. Merchants accused of trying to counterfeit cacao beans from wax and amaranth dough were executed on raised platforms in the middle of the marketplace. The pochtecatlatoque were also the collectors of tributes from the merchants.
Themercial system allowed a large portion of the population to trade which bolstered economic activity in the Aztec Empire. The markets also allowed trade of products thate from all regions of the Aztec Empire. For example one could usually find beans, vegetables, herbs, fruits, turkeys, deer, ducks and other forms of food along with a wide variety of pots, plates, jewelry, stones, military equipment, and much more. The markets were also a place for the sale of slaves. Male slaves were often bought by merchants to help transport goods or sold to cacao or other vegetable plantations for labor. Female slaves were often bought as prostitutes. Slaves were also bought by the tecuhtli or wealthy merchants as sacrifices for their gods. The existence of themercial system let the less wealthymoners and merchants the ability to sell products to the wealthy and consumerist tecuhti who loved to buy jaguar skins, jade studded masks, and obsidian sacrificial knives.
The major Aztec trade system let the empire operate as a tributary empire. The Aztec empire was not a rigidly controlled empire because city states generally had the majority of control over themselves. However with the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, theirbined military might forced conquered the majority of central Mexico. The conquered regions or states then had to pay tribute or a tax to the Triple Alliance. Tribute would be collected by a variety of people, from senior merchants to chieftains but the collection of tributes was only made possibly by the lack of control on the city states. The lack of control allowed amercial system whichplemented the collection of tributes because so much economic activity occurred that themoner was able to pay the tributes and still have enough cacao beans or exotic feathers to live. Furthermore, themercial system set up a network of trade routes that were used by the Aztec Empire to send soldiers, equipment, or supplies to certain areas of need.
The major trade route was called the Teotihuacan corridor and it connected the city to the regions where the raw materials were produced. When the raw materials entered the city, artisans and other craftsmen manufactured products then sent them to the major trade center in Tlatelolco. The Teotihuacan corridor was an important route because it let the Aztec officials to control the movement of raw materials. Although trade in Europe was quite stagnant because of the short life of agricultural goods, the Aztec were trading nonperishablemodities such as cotton, jewelry, skins and various forms of pottery. The Aztec extended trade routes in all directions and set up trading posts throughout Mexico with warehouses to store goods temporarily. The logistics of Aztec’s land trade was remarkably advanced whenpared to their global counterparts.
The Aztec also traded on water, but this was generally limited to freshwater rivers and tributaries. The Aztec relies on canoes for all of their aquatic travels even on the seas, when they built larger canoes. Transporting by canoe was an important aspect of the Aztec economy because of the way the chinampas the Aztec used to grow their crops were in shallow lakes. Therefore, canoes made it easier to load and transport the agricultural goods. Furthermore, since the major trading hubs were located beside rivers, canoes were a fast and efficient way to move any good in the Aztec Empire. Sea trade developed in a minor form with trading posts established along the Tucatan peninsula and Belize and according to historical records contact was made with tribes in Ecuador. However, the lack of better technology limited the Aztec to short distances by sea.
The entire economy of the Aztec Empire was for the most part a barter system, but certain products played such an important part of the people’s lives that they began to be used as a form of currency. The Aztec also did not have scales or balances so the barter system worked by size rather than weight. However, the most prominent currency was the cacao bean and it was somonly used as currency that some merchants even tried to make counterfeit cacao beans. The cacao bean was used as currency because of the Aztec legend that it was given to them by a god, but the more practical reason was the popularity of cacao as a food. The Aztec made liquid frothy chocolate drinks flavored spices and corn. Like the federal reserve’s held by the Bank of Canada, the royal warehouses held rooms full of dried cacao beans. Other forms of currency that were not as popular as the cacao bean were cotton mantles or clothing, pieces of tin, copper axe blades, transparent quills full of gold dust, and feathers of tropical birds.
Law, Government and Military
Law of the Aztec Empire was very strict in the society to keep the balance of the social structure within the country. The Aztec law was fair in a way that it does not discriminate people for their social status. In the Aztec society, nobles and higher-class people treated harsher even more than peasants to show a good example to them. Under the Aztec legal system, criminals were severely punished. Death sentence wasmonly used in the Aztec society. Other punishments are restitution, slavery, shaving the offender’s head. Sometimes, punishment could go beyond just the defender, but extend to the family of the guilty party. The Aztecs had a prison system which included, a “death row”, a debtor’s prison, and a prison for people who were found guilty of minor crime. Conditions in the prison were too cruel that many prisoners died while in custody. Mostly offenses were punishable by death together with: homicide, rape, abortion, robbery, selling property, fraud, incest, treason, use of the emperor’s insignia, and witchcraft. Capital punishment means hanging, drowning, stoning, beating, burning, quartering, and strangulation. Again, Victims’ families can intervene in the execution of a sentence, and forgive the criminal. If the victim chooses to forgive the criminal then the criminal bes a slave of the victim’s family. Here are examples of the punishments related to marriage; Adultery was often punished by stoning to death. A husband who murdered his adulterous wife was sentenced to death for taking the law into his own hands. For the divorce law, usually the court tries to reconcile the couple. The couple’s property would be divided equally as well as their children would be separated by their sex. Also, public drunkenness was punished by death young people; however, the law about drunkenness was different to senior individuals. For example, it was against the law to be drunk in public! Unless it was at a festival or you were a senior citizen. Ancient Aztec laws were strictly enforced, and I think that probably hindered a lot of disruption and upheaval, as most everyone just abided by the rules.
The Aztec government was different from any other government of Europeans’ at that time. The king was the head of the government, but he did not fully hold the power. He still had to consult his nobles before any decision was made. The Commands basically began with the king; he had his executive council which included everyone from the highest priest to consult the gods to the General of the Army, to the treasurer and so on. Four leaders would be chosen to lead,Chopard Replica, and out of those there would be one leader (mayor) of the city. These leaders control the city properly and surrounding areas. Instead of king’s tyranny, the surrounding cities and areas paid respect to the king by offering gifts. In Aztec, the nobles, priests, career warriors, tax collectors were below the king or ruler on the socio-economic scale. Despite the fact that each citizen of the empire belonged to a class from birth, it was possible formon farmers and soldiers to climb up the ladder for the higher-class if they showed good deeds and valour in battle. Even though slavery was a frequent punishment for most of the crimes, however even slaves had some rights. A slave could buy freedom for a price if a slave had time to do other work on the side. Merchants and traders were separate from the other classes; also, they had many other privileges and rights. The army also would fight small wars and conquer lands, providing sacrifices and expanding the empire. Most of all, it was a seemingly peaceful ruled nation; thus there were obviously strict laws to abide by in the ancient Aztec times. Crimes were harshly punished in Aztec. The death penalty was amon punishment. Because the people feared the death, most people were respectful, so there were few major crimes, disputes, or arguments.
War was significant to the Aztecs in their life. The Aztecs had professional military officers instead of a professional army. All Aztec boys were trained to fight when they were young. They were trained and educated on fighting skills and weapons at school. It was an honour and duty for all the Aztec soldiers to fight in battles. The students went on trips to the battlefields led by the real soldiers, and they learned how to take prisoners of war. Manhood was achieved after a soldier captured his first prisoner. The Aztec’s courage and strength helped them build their empire and establish themselves as the strongest of all the tribes in the Valley of Mexico. The Aztecs were constantly at war with nearby tribes and easily defeated them. When war was declared, it was pleasing time and was realized as a time to exhibit their warrior skills in battle. Soldiers from noble families wore costumes that were designed to frighten their enemies. They were dressed as jaguar warriors with ocelot skins and eagle warriors who wore a helmet that was like the beak of a bird of prey. Normal troops had costumes with patterns and had emblems from feathers and leather. The jaguar and eagle warriors were considered nobility. Their elaborate costumes were worn to show their strength and significance in Aztec society.
The Aztec soldiers and their enemies fought with primitive weapons: spears, bows, and arrows. Very sharp obsidian blade wooden clubs were their major weapons. However, obsidian blades soon got their edges broken and were thus fragile. The Aztec Warriors were wearing close-fitting breastplates and used wooden shields for protection. Brightly coloured feathers adorned the warrior’s leather or wooden shield. Below the shield was leather strips for protection of his legs. Their armour was padded cotton made into suits fitted to the body. The Aztecs went to war believing that their gods had given them all Mexican lands. Furthermore, they fought to get more supplies and land for their growing population as well as to have victims to sacrifice to the god. A place was chosen for the battle where the armies met. The fighting would start after insults and more cries were called out and drums and conch shell trumpets were played. The battle was most likely short and was stopped for both sides when the weaker side surrendered and prisoners were taken. The Aztec soldiers’ goal was to mainly attack enemies’ legs to capture them as prisoners. The soldiers brought back their opponents as prisoners to their city Tenochtitlan. They used the prisoners as sacrifices in religious ceremonies or as slaves.
By the time Montezuma the second became ruler in 1502, Tenochtitlan was a huge city and most of its neighbouring cities were already part of the Aztec empire. Conquering new lands meant longer journeys. The warriorsplained, but the leaders wanted more power and more tributes to support their huge population. Their priests urged the leaders to conquer new lands to keep the gods happy with blood offerings. The ruler Ahuitzotl had to reward andpensate his warriors to win in battles. When he died, the empire was at its utmost glory; however, perils of revolt constantly threatened the empire.
Religion and Values
Religion was a concept held in high regards by the Aztecs. This ancient race believed in human sacrifices and worshiped their own unique assembly of gods and goddesses. Like other cultures of the past, the Aztecs often held religious ceremonies to celebrate their cherished religion. Their religion stemmed from fear of nature and a fear of the world. In a way, it was a method of explaining theplex phenomena of the past. As a result of this, Aztec beliefs often dealt with prophecies, which foretold the beginning and end of disastrous and monumental future events. These prophecies were a method of controlling nature, and finding peace in the chaos of the world that they feared. They built temples to honour their gods, and to hold artifacts of religious importance. At the top of the temple, there was an altar where they would sacrifice human beings.
The Aztec calendar is one of this civilizations most interesting creations. This ancient schedule was used to as a means to control nature, to predict the events of the future. It consisted of the typical 365-day calendar cycle and a 260-day ritual cycle. Together, the two cycles formed a 52-year century, the Calendar Round. The 365-day cycle was known as the agricultural year, as it was used to divide the seasons and manage the yearly harvest. The ritual cycle was used to schedule their religious celebrations. Each month had its own name, and was associated with its own god. The time of year determine why kind of rituals were to be held, as well as the god that had to be worshipped.
The actual Aztec calendar itself is disk-like in shape, and was usually carved of stone. The calendar bares many ancient carvings relevant to the events and gods to be celebrated each year. The circular monolith itself is also known as the Sun Stone, representing how the Aztec year revolved around the rising and sinking sun.
The gods played a crucial role in Aztec religion. Most aspects of their lives revolved around their deities. The Aztecs believed that the world occurred in cycles; it would continually be destroyed and reborn, and the next cycle would be reborn.
Tezcatlipoca (Smoking Mirror) is the god of the sky, who is often associated with obsidian, the mainponent of Aztec weapons. He was the first ruler of the world. Legend has it that he transformed himself into the sun to govern this planet. However, one of his brothers grew jealous of him, and knocked him from the sky, ending to reign. Furious, he transformed himself into a jaguar and ate every human being on the planet.
Quetzelcoatl, the feathered serpent deity, was the primordial god of the wind. He was a transgressor between the earth and the sky, the link between human and god. In fact, Quetzelcoatl is thebination of a quetzal bird (which represents the heavens) and a snake (representing the land). He is responsible for creating human beings when the world was born. He is the same god who knocked the first on from the sky. He was the ruler of the second cycle, which was destroyed by a hurricane.
Tlaloc (He Who Makes Things Sprout) was the god of rain, fertility, and water. He was loved for his ability to bring life through rain, yet he was feared for his power of creating storms and thunder. He was the ruler of the 3rd sun or cycle, which was destroyed by fire. It was believed that people who drowned in floods would pass on to Tlaloc for guidance. He was married to Jade Skirt, the water goddess, as their similar elemental attributes would attest to.
Chalchiuhtlicue (Skirt of Jade) was the water goddess that represented youth and beauty. She was ruler of the fourth world, which she finally destroyed with a flood to make way for the fifth world. People relied on her for good harvests.
The fifth world (as in this current world) is ruled by no god, since none of the divine deities wanted the responsibility of governing the land, believing it to be too much trouble. The Aztecs predicted that an earthquake would destroy this world.
The Aztecs were very religious in everything they did, including war. They believed it was their duty to god to fight battles. This was a major driving force behind their ferocious natures inbat. In a way they feared god, or rather, they feared divine punishment should they lose a battle. Above all, the Aztecs valued humility, honour, and loyalty. These rules applied to everyone around them, friend or foe. They did not think of their opponents as enemies, but merely as “brothers who chose not to act like brothers”. It is true that the Aztecs enslaved and sacrificed many people. However, they did this out of “respect”, since they believed that there was no greater honour than to be sacrificed or put into service in the name of their god. In fact, they often sacrificed their finest warriors when the supply of slaves ran short.